Mapping Threat Intelligence: Enhancing Situational Awareness (Panel)

Session Video

About this session

This topic focuses on using Wardley Maps to map threat intelligence and enhance situational awareness. Panelists will discuss techniques for mapping threat intelligence sources, analyzing the relevance and credibility of information, and integrating threat intelligence into decision-making processes. They will also explore the role of Wardley Maps in identifying emerging threats and improving incident response.


  • Understanding threat intelligence mapping using Wardley Maps
  • Techniques for mapping threat intelligence sources and analyzing their relevance
  • Assessing the credibility and quality of threat intelligence information = Integrating threat intelligence into decision-making processes
  • Enhancing situational awareness and incident response through threat intelligence mapping


Dinis Cruz - 00:00 You. Hi. Welcome to this open security summit session in October 2023. And we’re joined by Simon Wardley and Marius Poskus. You know, has to be one of my favorite topics, especially, I have to say, the thing I’ve learned the most in the last 510 years that changed my perception. I have to add Gen AI to that now. I have to say, Simon, but, you know, I still feel that it’s one of those unexplored areas that has so much that we need to do to figure out how to really use it. And it’s not perfect, but it’s way better than a lot of the things that we use. So big fan on worldly maps. So, Simon, I know you got some things you want to present to us. Why don’t we start there and then we start the Q A out of it.

Simon Wardley - 00:49 We can do perfectly. Happy to. I put some slides together because we’re talking about weak cycles. But before you’ve already dropped the Gen AI bomb in here, I’ve got to say, the difference between Chat GPT Four and the multimodal version of Chat GTP, the more visual version, is night and day. It’s enormous. It’s astronomical. Because part of the problem is this goes back to the concepts of NICUs negropants and architecture by yourself. So the process of design is conversation going on between two designers, or possibly within the mind of one designer, two identities. But it’s a conversation. But that conversation in text form was very much limited by rules and syntax and styles. And of course, this goes all the way back to Jonah Friedman’s work on graphical conversation theory.

Simon Wardley - 01:53 Getting into that graphical form, it’s now much more about objects and relationships and context. It’s a bit like when you’re coding how we often have whiteboards behind us to actually explain the problem on the whiteboard that we then code. Well, we’ve been trapped in that world of code, the world of storytelling and text and all the rest of it. But the new version of Chat sheet, it is totally. This is what I’ve been waiting for. I wrote a post on this back in May last, earlier this year, which was following one from previously. The fuss about conversational programming, the medium is so important. So it’s enormous. If you haven’t played with the multimodal form, I can throw maps in there, get it to interpret the map. I can have a discussion with it, build a bet. It’s just incredible.

Dinis Cruz - 02:44 So I would argue that’s another pivotal point. But for me, the bit that it was already doing, which was the big game changer, was a understanding context. So I can have a dialogue with it, but more importantly is the ability to translate that into a context that I give it. So, for example, the biggest problem I had in the past was how do I tell that story in a way that makes sense to that individual, for that culture, for that experience in a way to even at the point of the journey, that individual is that could never scale. Now we can now we can tell the story and make sure the story is coherent.

Simon Wardley - 03:19 I’m going to disagree with you here. Good on a panel is that beforehand were talking about styles and rules and syntax and basically giving orders. So it was like, I need to improve this code, et cetera. And were still trapped in that world of text. I think what we’ve got with the multimodal forms enable us to ask questions in a completely different way and it is a huge transit. So everything before they release the multimodal version, I think will be forgotten to history. I mean, it was sort of exciting. This is where it’s actually game on. This is where it really is a fundamental change and it’s the medium by which we can have the conversation. But anyway, I’ve got some slight and weak signals. Well, on mapping, because I have to talk about mapping, of course, intelligence and.

Dinis Cruz - 04:14 Connecting the dots, right, and providing context, right. For example, just maybe so we can tide a lot of this on mapping, threat intelligence and that situation awareness. My challenge a lot in the past was how do I translate the situation awareness that we have here to that target audience? And even with the map, right, even when I got a map, I was able to create analysis. So I was always being very frustrated because I could use maps, I could visualize in maps, I could think in maps. I always struggle to communicate those stories and to provided that.

Dinis Cruz - 04:50 And now I can see how I can do that in a way that leads the individual almost to they’ll be consuming the worldly maps, and then as they ask the questions, you can zoom in and go, oh, let me show you what actually happens behind the scenes. Where in the past, there was too much of a chasm there on that part.

Simon Wardley - 05:10 Okay, I’m going to agree and I’m going to explain why I agree as well. But we’ll get there. I’m going to share some slides. I’ve always got a current research project while I’ve got one going on in video gaming. Coming up. Did sustainability. I did cybersecurity. I think I’ll spend a few minutes.

Dinis Cruz - 05:30 Taking yes, my ass before, because you’ve done a lot of great work and I joined a couple, but I know if you finish it off, it’d be great to see the outcome of that research project.

Simon Wardley - 05:38 Oh, it’s not written up yet. The time between when the research project finishes me right up is quite some time because I’ve got but I will show you. I will show you. All right, let’s get started. Anyway. Too much chatting for me.

Marius Poskus - 05:54 Can you see that?

Dinis Cruz - 05:55 Okay, yes, we can.

Simon Wardley - 05:56 Right? So let me go view full screen mode. Okay. So very quickly, I’m going to talk about origin, how I got into maps, and that’s going to be super quick. And then I’m going to talk about patterns, and then I’m going to talk about the problems with weak signals. Okay? So for me, this all started running a company, didn’t know what I was doing, completely clueless. Ended up reading Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. So Sun Tzu taught about five factors mattering, competition, have a purpose and moral imperative. Understand your landscape, the environment you’re competing in. Understand the climatic patterns, so how the landscape is changing. Understand doctrine. So the principles of organization. Then you’re into gameplay. And this overlaps very nicely with John Boyd’s UDA loop. You’ve got the game. You observe the environment. That’s what landscaping climatic patterns are about.

Simon Wardley - 06:50 Then you orientate yourself around this space and then you’re into sort of action, or decision action. This is where you’re into the whole sort of leadership part. And this got me really into landscape. What do we mean by landscape? So that got me into maps. And I read loads on military history and all the rest of it, things like this. And I got really excited by maps. And so I asked my company, everybody who was working for me, give me your maps. And they gave me loads of maps, customer journey maps, my maps, systems maps, loads of them, business process maps. And I took one systems map. Here it is. A number of components connected by connections. Took one component, CRM, moved it and asked, how has the map changed? And the answer is, it hasn’t.

Simon Wardley - 07:40 Which is unusual because if I took a geographic map and I take a map of the world and move, I don’t know, Australia, put it next to the UK. Obviously that has changed. It hasn’t changed here because it’s not a map, it’s a graph. And so the thing that every single map I had in common was none of them were actually maps, they were all graphs. And just to explain the difference there very quickly, the three images at the top, they’re all graphs. Three places nottingham, London, Dover, connected by two roads, m one, M two. Roughly, they’re all identical. The three images underneath it are all maps, and they are completely different. And the reason why they are completely different is because of a compass, because that gives a property, and that property is it gives space meaning.

Simon Wardley - 08:31 So the difference between a graph and a map is in a map, the space has meaning. So you can’t just simply move a component and it remains the same just because the connections are the same. So that’s the distinction between a graph and a map, and space only has meaning. Well, obviously, when you’re mapping against some form of landscape. Now, in order to do this, you need three basic components. Anchor, such as magnetic north, position of pieces. This is north, southeast or west of that, and consistency of movement. So if I go north. If I go south. And so that’s where I started. And the example I always do is a tea shop. If you’re mapping a tea shop, you start what’s the anchor? The public consuming tea, the business who wants to sell cups of tea, right? Well, that’s anchors that’s.

Simon Wardley - 09:18 Not enough cup of tea has needs. It needs tea. Cup needs hot water, Ketle, power. So you’ve got a chain of needs that describes position through a concept of visibility. And then of course, all of these components are evolving. And so that gives you movement and evolution. And so this is what you end up with is a map. And in this map, if you move a piece, it fundamentally changes the meaning of a map of the map, because it’s a map. There we are. That’s super simple. All right? Patterns. Turns out when you start mapping out spaces, you learn lots of patterns. There are climactic patterns. There’s doctrine, which is about organizational patterns. There’s leadership patterns. There’s about 30 Climactic patterns, 40 doctrine, about 100 different forms of gameplay. All right?

Simon Wardley - 10:07 So I’m going to talk about Climactic patterns and then bring in weak signals into this. So the climactic patterns here’s the horrible list that I’m going to talk about is everything evolves through supply and demand. Competition components can coevolve. Higher order systems create new sources of value. Efficiency enables innovation. Success breeds inertia very simple patterns that come out of mapping, which you can apply to a map. So an example, this is compute roughly in 2004 using these application. Best coding practice on a runtime on operating system or best architectural practice on compute. That was 2004. The first pattern you learn is everything evolved. So we knew that it would eventually become a utility. Sure enough. AWS Et Two 2006 the next pattern you learn is past. Success breeds inertia.

Simon Wardley - 10:59 So all of those with big data centers and lots of practices in that space had inertia to the change. Perfectly normal. The next pattern you learn is that as underlying components evolve, you get a change of practice. So we go from high meantime to recovery, to low meantime to recovery. So we go from scale up to scale out. We go from disaster recovery to chaos engines. So we’re distributing systems now. We’re using chaos engines. We’re no longer doing things like capacity planning. We don’t need to do that anymore. We’re not having to do N plus one anymore, all those sorts of things. Okay, the next pattern you learn oh, and those new practices, we gave a word we called DevOps eventually. Efficiency enables innovation. Standard pattern commodogation. So as things become a commodity, you get the appearance of new things like Netflix.

Simon Wardley - 11:57 Higher order systems create new sources of value or worth basic standard patterns useful for investment. So when I look at a map, I can basically see what’s changing. I can go where we should invest and also where we should not invest. So existing practices and servers in the data center and it’s simply by using this map more complicated version. This is how at Ubuntu we attacked the market. We were like 3% the operating system against Red Hat, Microsoft, they had all the money, all the people and everything else. Took us 18 months. We took 70% of all cloud. Not because we’re genius, we just knew where to attack. Really simple.

Simon Wardley - 12:36 All right, so when it comes to weak signals, there are a whole bunch of things you’re looking for when it comes to this particular set of patterns or this sort of change, evolutionary change, past success, breeding inertia, lots of people complain, dismissing the future system, high levels of efficiency of the future system. A new set of changing practices should be emerging which are associated with speed. You should see rapid innovation with people built on top and those new systems creating value. And those are things that you can look for if you’re looking for a change in the marketplace caused by climactic patterns. And a classic example of this we saw in 2014. So by 2010, the emerging practice got new name DevOps. By 2014, the runtime further up the stack started become more of a utility and it had exactly those patterns.

Simon Wardley - 13:31 Which is why in 2014, you should note, should have known AWS Lambda was going to become huge. This is where we need to go much more into the serverless space. Which is why your strategy should have changed because everything underneath it eventually is now heading towards the new legacy. Your strategy in 2016 is completely different from what it was in 2008. Your focus should have been on serverless, the emerging practice, et cetera. And that’s what we’re seeing grow today. All perfectly standard. I just want to reiterate that your strategy in 2016 is totally different from what it is in 2008. And the guide to it should have been those signals.

Simon Wardley - 14:13 You should have seen the efficiency, you should have seen people building things rapidly on top, lots of inertia, lots of people resisting this change, those practices associated with speed, rapid development of new things, with new sources of value, et cetera, they’re all the sort of signals that you look for. So you can read more about that in a wonderful book called The Fly will Affect by Dave Anderson. And then you get to another set patterns, leadership. So let’s have a look at those. There’s a whole bunch of them which we’re not going to go through except for one. Sensing engine is a particular model called ILC. It’s a very simple model. You take something, you turn it into a commodity, you expose it as an API so other people can build on top.

Simon Wardley - 15:00 You mine the metadata because they’re building on top of your API, so you have to bill them. So you mine the billing data, see what is becoming popular. So you identify new components in that industrialized new component services. The people you’ve just chewed up scream, oh, they’ve eaten our business model. Everybody else cheers because they can more rapidly build new things. On top of that, it’s a very simple model. You get everybody else to innovate for you. You mine metadata to spot future patterns, you commoditize to component services. And the reason why you use this model, it’s written back in I wrote it back in 2005, is now your rate of innovation, customer focus, efficiency, all increase with the size of the ecosystem people building on top. You use it to climb up the stack on the right hand side.

Simon Wardley - 15:51 So you compute machine learning, engines, platforms, whatever it happens to be, you’re building up on the right hand side of the stack. Now, you’ll read about this in a book called Reaching Cloud Philosophy. AWS’s, second ever book. It’s got about 17 pages of mapping in there. It’s got the IRC model in there. Basically, it describes how they chew up industry after industry. It’s very simple to spot. You look for certain patterns. So known for providing components focused on enabling others to build harvesting of ecosystem, obsession with efficiency, obsession with customer focus, considered highly innovative, despite the fact they’re not doing any of it. Rapid growth up the stack. So if you spot those particular signals, you know somebody’s playing that game against you. Now, that’s one bunch of climatic patterns and a bunch of signals associated that’s one specific leadership pattern.

Simon Wardley - 16:46 There’s a bunch of signals associated with that. Of course, there’s a massive amount to this field, but you can reapply this in other areas. So if I look at something, this is the automotive industry. This was done in 2015 at DVLA, looking at how it was changing. So this was where it was going in 2025. Many, many things becoming much more commodity like increasing use of intelligent agents, et cetera. You simply overlap China’s? Gameplay? We see them doing exactly the same sort of game. Heavier focus in terms of climbing up the stack, efficiency one side, they’re encouraging joint ventures and of course, accused of harvesting the ecosystem. It’s all the same thing. It’s basically a classic ALC model.

Simon Wardley - 17:33 And if you know that the bigger their ecosystem gets, the same with Amazon, the more innovative, efficient, customer focused they are, the more impossible they are to play. There are ways of countering that, but at least you know the game they’re playing, right? So now here’s the problem. That’s all wonderful stuff, and there’s a wonderful book come out called Leading by Week Signals, which has loads of maps in there. It’s by Peter Gomez and Mark Lampert. So I’ve been having a look through that. It’s got lots of forms of maps in there, but the problem with the book is it’s probably only got an audience of about a thousand people. The reason people is most people don’t understand their landscape. We compete in multiple landscapes, not just territorial, but obviously technological, economic, social and political landscapes.

Simon Wardley - 18:22 And if we just have a look at the economic and technological landscapes, we have very poor understanding of the environment. We’ve seen this from all the problems we’ve had with supply chains in the economic space. So our first problem is we’ve got very poor awareness of the landscapes we are competing in. That’s assuming that we realize that we are actually competing in landscapes. But there’s a second problem, and for that, I’m going to share something else. Can you see a mirror board?

Dinis Cruz - 18:58 Yes, I can. And that’s leading by week signals by Peter Gomez. Right.

Simon Wardley - 19:04 Yes, it is. And Mark Lambert. So what I did is I took about 60, OD people who are all so I run these groups where we look at an industry like defense, like healthcare, like finance, education, and we try and map out the space and understand what’s important, where to invest. And so we did one on cybersecurity. So I took about 60, 70 people, all from different parts of cybersecurity. And the first thing we do is ask them what matters. And so they came up with a load of things that matters phishing attacks, security target attacks, detection, disk, trust loads. All of this stuff matters. All right, that’s great. How do we work out what of all of this stuff actually matters? Well, the first thing I ask them to do is group it into themes, or what we call perspectives.

Simon Wardley - 19:58 And so they group this into things like risk management, security awareness, procurement, infrastructure, threat, identity, data, people, a bunch of different themes. And then what we do is we ask them self organizing to group map out the most of those themes. In fact, they choose a number of them, I think it was about six. And they chose to map out people, technology advancements, risk management, security awareness, data and threat. Now, this is all done over a period of 10 hours. And so what they do is they go and map out each of these areas. Now, why would you do that? You do that because I want you to imagine, you want to find out what are the most important landmarks in, say, Paris. But no one’s ever been to Paris.

Simon Wardley - 20:47 So you send one group out there to map Paris, and they come back with a map. They’ve obviously mapped it from a perspective how do you know the map’s right? It’s wrong. They might have mapped it from the perspective of the nicest places to buy pizza. And so they will say the number one place is Pierre’s Pizza Parlor. Okay, fine. So what you do is you send multiple groups out to map it from different perspectives, and then you can ask the question, what are the most important landmarks across multiple maps? And then you can aggregate that together. So this is what they did they went through as a group, they map.

Dinis Cruz - 21:22 Out their particular overall and now he’s going through the sorry.

Simon Wardley - 21:29 That’s all right. Does that make sense, by the way?

Dinis Cruz - 21:31 Yeah, no, it’s really good. No, exactly. I was just seeing your praises here, but keep going. I unclick the mute.

Simon Wardley - 21:40 Hey, no problem at all. So they map out things like cybersecurity from the perspective of people. So they’ve added a whole bunch of components in here and they’re looking at things like risk management, total stakeholders, assets, situational awareness, protection, et cetera. And then they do it from all of these. So they’re broken into different groups. We run this all in parallel. So you’ve got one group down here who was mapping it from the point of view of awareness, and one group who are mapping over here from the point of view of risk management. Now, you can see they circle around this area because that’s when we ask the question. Once they’ve got a map and they’ve got embedded in their perspective of the landscape, we ask them the question, what matters? Okay, where should we invest?

Simon Wardley - 22:27 And get them to highlight the most important area. So, from the perspective of cybersecurity risk management, they highlighted things like better risk analysis skills, LLM data. Now, that’s not that one.

Dinis Cruz - 22:40 Sorry, can you just zoom in? Because I think that one for me has one of the best examples of why LLM is going to completely make a massive change in our industry. So let’s zoom out a little bit. Sorry. So you can see what we’ve done here, if you look at it, is that you basically have multiple elements of the cybersecurity industry, right. From a risk point of view. Right. And then the interesting argument was you see that LLMs in the bottom right? Kind of they’re allowed the LLMs that it’s allowed on the bottom right. Yeah. Your mouse. The argument were talking about was that before Shi GPT, that was all the way to the left, right? So for me, it’s a great example.

Dinis Cruz - 23:25 I’ve used it several times to explain why sometimes things change overnight or change very quickly, is because that LLMs before track GPT. And you probably can argue, maybe even now with the visual element, the multimodal was kind of to the left. Now that it’s there, it means that all those security LLMs, which are pretty primitive, are going to go very fast. In the past, I almost sometimes view this as gravity, right? In the past, the security LLMs struggle to move to the right because they were anchored by the LLMs Foundation. That was, in a way, on Genesis. Now that the LLMs are getting close to commodity or very productized, they’re going to pull, right? The gravity is going to pull all the security LLMs.

Dinis Cruz - 24:08 And if you’re one of those guys at the top, in a way, you either embrace that and then your strategy should be changing because you’d know the security alms are going to move all the way to the right very quickly.

Simon Wardley - 24:21 So one way to test whether that is true is going all the way back to the weak signals in here. And here we have our pattern, things industrialized. So are you seeing lots of signs of inertia because of past success in previous ways of doing it? Are you seeing this as an evolutionary change associated with efficiency? So is that going on? Are you seeing a change of practice associated with speed? Maybe it’s got new terms like prompt engineering or whatever. Are you seeing rapid innovation built on top with new sources of value being created? Because if you are, then you know this is the stage that you’re actually at.

Dinis Cruz - 25:00 Yeah, well, I guess the answer to every one of those is check. Right? And I think the thing that I found most fascinating is the inertia. I have to say that I see so many people, even companies or individuals, that I could totally see the inertia because I could see that they look for the flaws and going, oh, that’s not why it’s relevant. And I’m like I have this analogy of talking to somebody, saying it’s like Jarvis, right? You know, iron man jarvis. That we have Jarvis. And people now say he’s not good enough. Because when we asked Jarvis to sing, he didn’t do a good job. Or we ask him to do hallucinates. Jarvis hallucinates. Yeah, but what do we think innovation.

Simon Wardley - 25:39 Is other than a hallucination? I mean, hallucination is not a bug, it’s a feature. But anyway exactly. Now, anyway, we do this across all of these different maps and then what you do is you’ve now got multiple perspectives. So we’ve got in total, here we are, nice little summary diagram. We got six different perspectives. Data organization, cybersecurity in the perspective of awareness from risk management. And on each of these maps now, the group have highlighted what’s important. So with people regenerative culture, regenerative supply chain, these are the words that they use. Risk management skills, better risk analysis, security awareness, et cetera. They’ve highlighted the most important areas. And then what we do is we aggregate across the lot. Okay? So it’s a simple task and bring it all together, aggregation. And then by finding themes which are most common, you create a priority list.

Simon Wardley - 26:43 And it turns out that your priority list in cybersecurity is about building a resilient culture. That the top four things seem to be about building a resilient culture. Rapid growth of AI, cyber immunity, I. E. Organizations constantly attacking themselves and getting used to being attacked in order to harden themselves up and learning. So you end up with these sort of core themes, which then what we do is we go and do an examination of what’s going on in the wider space. This is by comparing analysts against what the actual group comes up with and what we discover is that the analysts are mostly focused on process automation, continuous monitoring, digital sovereignty, nation state, god knows why. They get excited by that sort of stuff.

Simon Wardley - 27:34 Whereas the group itself was more about resilient culture, cyber immunity, rapid growth of AI, and actually awareness of the supply chain management. You got to learn about that sort of stuff. So this is where Spons and all the rest of it come into play.

Dinis Cruz - 27:48 Could you just explain me better, Mark, how to read this? So what does the colors it will.

Simon Wardley - 27:56 Be when I write it up. So the yellow dots is I aggregate a whole bunch of analyst reports and run them through the same process so I can see what they think is high priority, what they think is low priority. The purple dots are where the group was. And then what I do is also I take the entire list and I send it through Chat, GPT and Bard because they’re trained on large sets of data, so they give me a sort of background signal of what the general market feels. So I ask Chat, GPT and Bard to order them as well. And so that’s the red and the blue. So the ones you concentrate really on are the yellow and the purple. And you can see there’s quite a big distinction.

Simon Wardley - 28:36 So the only area that the group agreed with the analysts on was the rapid growth of AI. That was the only space. Otherwise there’s quite a big distinction between what they thought was important. Now, the reason why I mentioned this is because you think about resilient culture, cyber immunity. So it’s about making your organization capable of coping with shocks and being constantly under attack. So improving its hardness to those sorts of shocks. I mean, those are obvious sort of things, but that’s not what was being mentioned in the analyst report. And I think it was the next day, I think, Denise, it was either yourself or with another group. This whole conversation, this ridiculous idea there was a CISO quite proudly showing off a board of shame that they were using in their organization.

Simon Wardley - 29:27 So they would do phishing attacks and everybody failed, went on the board of shame, which is almost the reverse. This is not how you build a resilient culture or build up cyber immunity. This is actually how you dismantle any form of culture that you have within that organization. You create a system of fear and it’s almost the reverse of what you want to do. So this leads me to the second problem, because the first problem is that we don’t understand our landscapes anyway. So the weak signal stuff is really exciting. I’d love it, but for most people it’s fairly irrelevant because we don’t actually understand our landscapes. And the second problem we have is the utter idiocy that we do in places, even basic things like how we build resilient cultures, which obviously should be a focus, I’m afraid.

Simon Wardley - 30:18 In some places, we’re not even doing that at that point, I’ll go quiet.

Dinis Cruz - 30:25 So how do you measure that? Because I have to say, one of the frustrations that I feel we still have this is a good one to bring Mario’s on this is that I still feel that a lot of security, it’s still a marketing exercise. And I’ll give you an example. Imagine three organizations. One has that CISO, one has maybe the other extreme super more enlightened. And I completely agree that’s what not to do. By the way, one has great practices responding quite well, and then one in the middle. At the moment, we don’t have a good way to let the market promote and reward the good player.

Marius Poskus - 31:12 Yeah, I think you’re very right. I think it all stems from what Simon mentioned about the culture. I think loads of organizations are still carrying that legacy view of security, saying no security being stick instead of a carrot. So I’m always the kind of person that always thinks about how we can communicate and collaborate with people to actually help them understand how the security work. Like phishing simulations. It’s never a blame culture. It’s always about how you encourage people to report bad behavior because you build a two way collaboration. You always encourage instead of noticing someone who failed you’re, noticing people who might detect the emails and praising people for their good work. That’s how you breed. I think the culture sort of spin. We never say no. And that’s one other thing. We actually talked within my team last week.

Marius Poskus - 32:25 When did the last time we said no to someone in security? And we couldn’t remember. We never say no. We always say yes. But let’s look at from security perspective, what do we need to be able to say? Yo, yes. For example, what are requirements of security to be able to say yes? And that’s how we always we’re always playing around availability and security. Because I think sometimes people forget there’s loads of organizations that add security for the sake of security.

Simon Wardley - 32:55 Can I just say I love that? Absolutely love that. Thank you. Back in the 1990s, I used to run security for an organization called Harrods, which obviously as in the It security. And one of the things I would do is attack the organization. Of course, when we found weaknesses, rather than go round them, because unfortunately, there was a big culture of fear in that organization. Rather than go around, beat people up, we’d involve them in the group to do the next round of attacks. Because you’d learn from the process. So it wasn’t a case of go and hit somebody with a stick, put them on a wall of god, I can’t believe in 2023 somebody puts up a wall of shame. I mean, that’s just anyway, I love hearing the words that you were saying.

Marius Poskus - 33:46 Yeah, it’s always either involvement or another thing that really helps. I think for us is make it personable. Whenever we have examples of safe phishing, we always trying to relate examples of various banking scams, SMS scams that we find in the wild and how it relates to people’s, external families, external sort of known people circle, and how we can relate. That how you’re enhancing your security knowledge, not only for the job you do, but your personal life, how you protect your personal bank details, your personal money and personal details, as in what can be used for nefarious purposes. So I think when you connect those two dots, it always sort of a big light bulb goes up in sort of people’s head.

Dinis Cruz - 34:33 But we need a way to share this information. And I think a really good sign is a sign that the insurance industry is really raising the bar because they got burned quite spectacularly by distributing insurance as confetti for a while and then got burned right. Because they were not evaluating correctly the security posture. And now they’re starting to put pressure. And even if you look at that simple example, which I would argue, it’s almost like if they don’t have the awareness to understand why that’s a problem, we can bet that there’s going to be another 40 things they’re going to be doing wrong. It’s almost like the canary on the coal mine. But we need a way to expose that. We need a way for the market to become more efficient.

Dinis Cruz - 35:15 In fact, we need a way for the senior management to understand that’s what’s happening and the need. Right? And maybe the senior management loves it. Great. And maybe it’s a cultural problem within the organization. Okay? Right. There’s a moment where you draw the line a bad company is going to be a bad company. Right. But it might not be that their customers are that happy with it’s. Kind of like pollution. Right? So in a weird way, we now have very little acceptance for companies that claim all sorts of things and behind the scenes they polluting like mad and they’re destroying environments and they have really bad ethical practices. I think we need a way and I think Maps is part of the solution. I think Maps is one of the ways this can work quite effectively and also translating it to particular audiences.

Dinis Cruz - 35:59 So you reward the teams that are doing a good job, the teams that build a good culture. If anything, Mares is giving us better arguments when we justify why we do certain things. Right.

Marius Poskus - 36:10 Yeah, I think I’m a big proponent as well. Sometimes people forget that security is part of the business. We need to align security to business. How comes some of the security professionals, when you talk, when you ask for a security professional, how does your security program help your business? Bottom line, they always get mind boggled. Oh, bottom line is not our concern. But that’s the thing. How do we build accountability? How do we make people understand what security is all about. That’s one thing that is always.

Dinis Cruz - 36:45 I.

Marius Poskus - 36:46 Guess it’s not portrayed very well because sometimes people hide behind accountability and that’s what needs to change, I guess, as our industry matures.

Dinis Cruz - 36:58 But then we are the problem, right? The security professional is the problem.

Marius Poskus - 37:02 Some of them, yes, some of them are.

Dinis Cruz - 37:06 I think there’s maps. What I like about, and I’m going to keep throwing the other lens into this. I think we can scale that now in ways that before whereas it’s not possible I think it’s now possible to take a map, a visualization of practices that a company is doing, and provide narratives that are anchored in a way I bias throws a particular way that we can then get some good data on the back of it and going, that’s okay. That’s not okay. I’m telling you, I have that problem. I have freaking suppliers coming out of every bed of the organization and it’s going to go even more because we’re going to get a marketplace, right? So I really want to make sure that I can push security down and understand the metrics in my, for example, third party supply environment.

Dinis Cruz - 37:58 So how can we scale that, Simon? How can I get I will put a policy that says I want every team to give me a worldly map of security, of how you operate.

Simon Wardley - 38:10 It’s not just an organization in terms of a company problem. This is a massive problem from a.

Dinis Cruz - 38:15 Nation state, but let’s solve an organization problem.

Simon Wardley - 38:21 But a classic example of this, one of the best I’ve seen, it’s not a map, it’s a graph is the work which was done by the Complexity Group in Vienna for Hungary. So what they did is they took VAT transaction. You know, whenever you transact with someone else, there’s value added tax and Hungary collects them at transaction level. So they were able to graph out the entire economy, which is amazing. And what they found is there were 90,000 old companies, and I think it was about 100 companies represented about 70% of the systemic risk of the entire economy. And it was something like about 30 companies were about 25% or something. So any one of those 30 having a problem, you lose 25% of your GDP. But most companies have that terrifying thought.

Dinis Cruz - 39:12 Most companies are like that. In fact, I would argue that most internal systems are like that. The challenge is, in fact, I had this exact conversation with my team a couple of weeks ago where we had a big incident and we’re now mapping, for example, which parts of the organization that we going to leave to burn, which parts well, in a nice way, but which parts we’re going to run straight away. Because those are the 20% that keep the stores open, right? They are the 20% that if they are alive, we can deal with the rest. Okay? But if they have a freaking heart attack, then we have a problem. No.

Marius Poskus - 39:49 Go ahead, Sam.

Simon Wardley - 39:49 Well, I was going to say if you think about the Hungary example, other nations can’t do that. The UK, we don’t collect transaction level VAT records. France won’t do so until 2030. So they’re operating in spaces where they do not understand their landscape. So you cannot see the pattern. So we get hit by shops all the time and yes, absolutely, it’s true with organization. This is why things like Spom software bill and materials, okay, it only gets you to the point of graphing and there’s a world of difference between when something’s a commodity and when it’s custom built. So ideally we want to get to math, but we’re lacking the basic information. This is why the Typhoon this was about weak signals. Weak signals. It’s like Irobot, we’re like hacker, bloke blah. That’s great, but it’s fantasy for most people.

Simon Wardley - 40:37 And it’s fantasy because they don’t even have the basic understanding of the landscape. And even more terrifying, they’re not even doing the basic simple things of building resilient cultures within what they’ve got already. So there’s an awful lot of groundwork which is almost why Weak Signals is I love the topic, I love books like this. I think this book is great and there’s some really good stuff and I can see but it’s a bit like how the analysts always want to talk about nation state security. What’s the point if you don’t actually understand the landscape?

Marius Poskus - 41:09 That’s the thing, I don’t know why, but for some reason nowadays we keep talking about tools, about innovation and about this new shiny blinker 3000 that’s going to solve all our problems. But people keep forgetting why would you start talking about nation states if a script kitty can breach your defenses? Because maybe you don’t have ten visibility in your assets. Maybe you don’t even started doing the basics. Like you don’t have your data flow mapped and you don’t know where the data is going and where it’s stored, how some of your assets are managed from hardening perspective. That’s why I think in a way it sort of underlines the problem because what we spoke within when I was in Sansis or Network event 2010s was all about reducing the likelihood of risk.

Marius Poskus - 41:57 And I believe that 2020s are shaping now in saying we can’t reduce likelihood anymore because it’s inevitable that something’s going to happen. So let’s work on resilience how we can maintain business operations and reduce the impact of that cyber attack and let’s not focus about likelihood anymore.

Dinis Cruz - 42:15 Look, I argue that my job as a CISO is to allow the business to take risk. Yeah, that’s my job. My job is to make sure the business takes the right amount of risk with the right amount of understanding, with the right amount of mitigations in a way that incidents don’t become crisis because the business needs to operate at a level of risk. It happens all the time. We have stores open, right? You can walk into a store, right? We don’t have military guys at our stores. When you go and buy your vitamins, by the way, we have great new products, poland America. Yeah.

Marius Poskus - 42:49 Because there’s a thing like if you.

Dinis Cruz - 42:50 Look at the latest, very healthy, but a dude with the machine gun and a lot of security guards at the entrance is not going to really work very well. Although it might make it more secure.

Marius Poskus - 43:00 If you look at the latest Greg’s von de Gras book, he’s poised a very important question. Every year the cybersecurity budgets are getting bigger, but we’re not getting less breaches. We’re getting more breaches every year while we’re spending more on cybersecurity. So there is a fundamental yeah, but.

Dinis Cruz - 43:21 We also have a lot more interconnectivity, right? Like, come on. If you look at the side effects of a cyber breach in 2023 versus 2020 or 2010, right? It’s kind of like it’s very different, right? And there’s a lot I think hang on.

Simon Wardley - 43:37 Yes, but remember, we also have very little understanding of the landscape itself. Most organized, very poor understanding of the space. And I think Marius is hitting on a really important point because from what came from that cybersecurity group was the critical things of the four things was awareness, CPA, landscape supply chain, software bill and material supply chain management was in that group of four. And rapid growth of AI. So that’s the technology thing. But the real two big ones were resilient culture and cyber immunity. And they’re about people, not about technology. So that’s about how you build a culture which copes with shocks and manages those shocks, and how you toughen up that culture so that people become sensitive.

Simon Wardley - 44:23 And this is why that whole sort of wall of shame thing is such a daft or creating cultures of fear are so incredibly daft things to do. So, unfortunately, when I look at sort of the analyst reports, it’s a continuous monitoring, it’s more analytics, more big data process, automation, big one. Big one that’s all about technology. So I think there’s some fundamentals here in terms of we’ve got to focus on the people and building a resilient culture and building that concept of cyber immunity within an organization. I think then, on top of that, we’ve got to improve our awareness. Then we can start talking about these wonderful new things. I think the real danger is people say, oh, well, AI will magically solve this. I’ve got to say, I’m gray. Maris on here.

Simon Wardley - 45:08 Sort of the magical sort of like it is piece of data will magically do it. We’ve got to get back to fundamentals.

Marius Poskus - 45:14 And I think on the back of that simon I think the great point is the big talent shortage is another bull because we all know to me personally as well, yes, you need some of the skills in specific niches. But when you hiring security teams, most of the two of the most important skills for myself is aptitude and attitude. You can teach the rest of them, but if someone has the right attitude and aptitude to learn, it will be very easy to get them and learn. The tech sometimes job descriptions and people hiring teams saying, oh, we don’t have specific talent shortage, I love that.

Simon Wardley - 45:56 And the reason why I love that, thank you so much for saying that, is because it’s often we’ve got a talent problem. It’s always the people are the problem. No, the people are the solution. They’re your positive things, they’re not the problem. They are where the answer actually is, we’ve got to change this sort of aspect.

Dinis Cruz - 46:19 So I’ve been trying to do this quite a bit, right. And actually, Sam, I would like your views on this. So I’m a big fan of first of all, I completely agree. We don’t have a skills shortage. I think we have a skills transfer problem. Right. What we need to get into cybersecurity is a lot more people from other fields, because what they have is an attitude and a motivation and an understanding and a maturity that we don’t have right now. Right. The way I think about this is I can hire somebody, let’s say bands one to five, right? Five is top, one is lower. I can hire a cybersecurity analyst at band three, which is actually quite expensive if you think about it. Right. And I would argue today there’s a premium that we’re paying because of the skill shortage.

Dinis Cruz - 47:01 What I want to do is I want to hire a specialist at Band Four from another industry, a doctor, an engineer, a poet, a restaurant manager, an individual that really has a lot of great knowledge. And I want to bring them to cybersecurity because they have that experience. The problem in the past, and I’ve done a couple of cases, they’ve been successful. My challenge was how to infuse that person with cybersecurity knowledge once they’re ready and once they want to drink it. And I have to say, I know that not a tool, is not suit for everything but the gen AI ability that we will have not yet to create customized learning paths, to create agents, bots training environments that allow an individual to learn a much faster pace.

Dinis Cruz - 47:46 I feel that can be a piece of the puzzle that allow us to bring a lot more people into our industry in a much more effective way.

Simon Wardley - 47:53 You do, but obviously I mapped out the education system with a whole bunch of professors of education. We thought the education system was all about maximizing opportunity and critical thinking, and it’s not. It’s about producing social cohesion and useful economic units.

Dinis Cruz - 48:10 I’m going to start at the more.

Simon Wardley - 48:11 Involved bots and tools can have the dupe be used in a way that does what you say, but it can also be used to create new balls of shame. So I would be careful. You got to think about those. So we’ve got some questions.

Dinis Cruz - 48:29 One of them is Jim, do you want to jump in? Because I think you can ask your question.

Simon Wardley - 48:33 So yeah, cheers.

Speaker 4 - 48:34 So Simon, I came to your session at the Center Park years ago and asked you about risk and you pointed me this book which you can’t see. It’s called The Search for Value and it relates ask you a question about risk and you pointed to that book which has got lots of equations in it. But I think the most useful thing it does is it shows that risk is in some ways a reciprocal of business value, of stock value. It’s a direct relation. So I know that you’re a risk guy and thanks so much for sharing the research. I saw that risk analysis was an area of focus. I just want on that.

Simon Wardley - 49:14 Well, so the risk analysis in terms of this group, it was what are the major areas? The ones that were right at the very top were very much about people type stuff. So very much culture and cyber immunity and lower down there was the concept of risk analysis. Now, from my point of view, when we start talking about risk analysis, I’m talking about value, I’m talking about things like capital flow. I’m using maps because I’m actually using the interconnections between the different components because every line in a map is a bi directional exchange of value or I give money for a cup of tea or whatever and risk itself is just another form of asset that flows in these sorts of maps. But in order to assess that, I’ve got to actually understand the landscape.

Simon Wardley - 50:00 And so I’ve got a fundamental problem, is that I generally don’t understand the landscape. So without this sort of stuff, it’s the same with the economic system, it’s mostly sticking fingers in the air and having a good guess. It’s exactly the same with sustainability scope three. It’s all estimation because again, we don’t understand the components and the connections between them. So I do like the risk management stuff, the risk analysis. I’m going to say from my point of view, we’ve still got huge weaknesses in actually understanding the environments that we’re actually operating. And until we do start to understand those, we’re still going to be in the world of guessing. Does that make sense?

Speaker 4 - 50:43 Yeah, it does. I suppose I was hoping that you’d talk about some technical framework or decision making framework or ways of gathering information. What do you think about the large language models? Do you think they can help with risk analysis?

Simon Wardley - 50:57 So, as I said in the beginning, I think there’s a huge change between Chat GPT four and the multimodal form of Chat GPT because now we can actually start having a conversation with them. It’s huge, it’s night and day. It’s that sort of scale and so I think there are I’m already using them to help create maps and so forth off the space and starting to have conversations. I think we’re still very early days. I think there’s some real potential there once we get a handle on the landscapes because we compete across multiple landscapes, territorial, technological, economic, political and cultural landscapes. Only one of them, the territorial, do we have a handle on, do we have maps and radars and all the rest of it and that sort of stuff? The other four, it’s often people talk about digital sovereignty.

Simon Wardley - 51:51 Well, where are your borders? Where are you going to compete? Or conflict with others, I should say, where are you going to cooperate? Collaborate. You can’t answer those questions without actually understanding the landscape. We can do that in territorial. So we’re lacking those basic things. So your question, can it help? I think we’re getting there. We’re starting to be actually able to have conversations outside of the world of text. And so I think that’s a massive improvement. Does that answer your question, Jim? Yeah.

Speaker 4 - 52:20 Thanks so much and thanks for sharing the research.

Dinis Cruz - 52:22 Really interesting.

Simon Wardley - 52:23 Pleasure. Pleasure. Absolute delight.

Dinis Cruz - 52:25 So Jim, the way I connect that and I feel again, I think we have a golden opportunity now to really make sense is to connect risk with other parts, to have that situation awareness where in the past risk at top level was a bunch of spreadsheets. Then you have a gap, then you had reality, then you might have maps. I think we now can start to be able to graph them out, connect them, create narratives and then use the maps to drive behaviors, right, and to drive situation awareness. But it’s the connectivity that is super important. Like for example, do people understand the risks of what the decisions they’re making? A project, doing a project, does he increase, does he decrease? Does he maintain your risk? I think that was the thing that was always missing.

Dinis Cruz - 53:05 When the exec make a decision, do they understand the ramifications of the decisions they’re making? Right. And I think that in the past was impossible. It was air gaps, right? It was spreadsheets or even system A and system B, like Simon daddy’s great picture of a company has 25 risk systems, or 100 systems or 1000 systems. But I think we now have an opportunity to connect them. There’s a bunch of technologies and processes and thinking that are converging, but I feel the LLMs provide the connection dot between them that allows us to do translations in a way that in the past was impossible or requires so much engineering cost that nobody could do it. So watch this space. I think it’s really cool. So, final thoughts on last couple of minutes. You got another question from Tristan. Yes, you’re right.

Dinis Cruz - 53:57 If you can unmute yourself, you should be able to. But I can ask is what’s the threat intelligence equivalent of the hungarian VAT Records graph, that graph that we can do on threat intelligence that gave us that visibility and find those 50 or 20 mission critical spots.

Simon Wardley - 54:19 I think you’re starting to see the requirement for the US government, the Executive Order, the spombs, that’s fashioning positive mean within the Mozilla Group, they’ve got a particular system which is all about funding open source projects which is coming out and it has some incredible graphing capability because of how it redistributes funds within that system. So there are ways of doing this sort of stuff. We’re not there yet though, to be blunt. We’re not even talking maps here. We’re talking graphs of the connections between things. To be blunt, the only places that I’ve actually seen where the market was able to create a deep understanding of the supply chains is the International Material Database System, which is in the automotive. And that’s because the European Commission came out with some pretty hefty legislation forcing to do so. And pretty much that’s about it.

Simon Wardley - 55:36 I mean, Spom is government action. I think it’s going to require government action. I think we’re not going to get it until actually we have a government department of the supply chain or equivalent across multiple. I hear a lot of talk, people say we’ll come together again, magic technology, it will be sorted on the blockchain. I’m sure they say just throw a bit of AI on there and magic will happen. But people like to keep their information in silos, even though it doesn’t make a great deal of sense, even though the value is amplified by sharing it, they don’t want to. So to solve these problems, I think eventually you’re going to need government legislation.

Marius Poskus - 56:26 I would add a couple of things. I think one thing is we’re currently severely lacking is collaboration. So as you guys probably are aware, not that long ago, only US government signed an Executive Cybersecurity order for governing departments to collaborate on various cybersecurity issues, which is just recent. We have a breakdown between government, private industry and then vendors. I’ve been sharing my ideas about various vendors and I think there are some vendors who are really changing the landscape. I’ve been to a few calls where there’s nothing talked about sales pitches. It’s a collaboration culture where people are allowed to discuss various subjects under Chatham House rules.

Marius Poskus - 57:24 So I think vendors, private sector and government collaborating and sharing knowledge, in some ways it’s a way forward because it’s us against the bad guys and the more we can work together, the more we’re going to achieve. So how about some of the vendors? They’re potentially working with hundreds or thousands of companies, so they have a lot of intelligence that could benefit the industry. So how we can collaborate and share and knowledge and advance our collaboration, that’s the way forward, I guess.

Dinis Cruz - 58:00 Well, the Open Security assignment on that final note, right, is trying to do is bid for collaboration right. I think we do a lot of collaboration here get a lot of people together, share a lot of information. Everything is posted on videos is out there. Right. But I agree we need a lot more and we need to get some of us physically together but yeah, absolutely. All right on top of the hour on this simon, thanks again. Always brilliant I love that you gave actually what you created was a really lovely which I need to package and publish in the summit side on I always need people tell volume maps take one thing for I just tell you, and I go read that. See that? The first 15 minutes. Nice and easy again, Marius. Thanks for collaborations, and I see you guys next time.

Marius Poskus - 58:43 Thank you.

Simon Wardley - 58:44 Absolute pleasure. Take care. Bye.